the Great (1712-1786) his nickname "the Great" was
Frederick II after the Second Silesian War, which was in 1745.
After the Seven Years War, the third, he had to lead to the province
of Silesia, he was called the "Old Fritz," although he
was only 51 years old. Diffracted from gout and concerns, leaning
on his cane, he returned to Berlin, more precisely, back to Potsdam.
Frederick II was born on 24th Born January 1712 in Berlin, the son
of Frederick William I, called the story the "Soldier King".
His mother, Sophia Dorothea, the daughter of the Elector of Hanover
and King of England, was the artistic contrast to the very strict
father. To her felt the sensitive child, and later the young Frederick
drawn. From her he felt in his love of music and poetry as well
understood as by his older sister, Wilhelmina. Although born into
the role of the Crown Prince, gave him everything from military
life. At eighteen he once tried to secretly left the army, but failed
to escape. He was taken to the fortress Kiistrin, and his accomplice,
Lieutenant Hans Hermann von Katte, was beheaded in front of his
eyes in the courtyard of the fortress. Frederick now grasped the
iron will of his father and bowed to him, even as he Elisabeth Christine
of Brunswick-Severn has been prescribed for his wife. Nevertheless,
the marriage began with the four happiest years of Frederick's life,
write to Schloss Rheinsberg in Brandenburg, where he also began
the French philosopher Voltaire. Later, he also invited him to his
court. Frederick spoke fluent French, German, only as a coachman.
What he found
in 1740, when he was after the death of his father King of Prussia,
who were incoherent countries: East Prussia, Brandenburg and possessions
on the Rhine. The young man had long since realized that was not
done with this Prussian state. He wanted to change. The occasion
was found, died suddenly than in Vienna, the German Emperor and
his young daughter, Maria Theresa became ruler of the Habsburg
lands. Frederick took advantage of this opportunity, and fell
in December of 1740 for the first time with his army in Silesia
and occupied Breslau. This was not a glorious campaign. A second
and third followed. Only then was able to fully concentrate on
his Frederick bled the country. "I am" as he put it,
"the first servant of my country." So he conceived of
his kingly office and acted upon.
state, anyone can be saved in his own way!" Even this was
true. In Prussia, all that had to wander off at will from their
homelands of the faith found a new home. Frederick II founded
in Berlin, the Academy of Sciences, introduced compulsory education
and press freedom. He wanted in his state, the enlightenment,
enabling the intellectual independence of its subjects, and as
far as he could, he realized it, too.
In its foreign
policy, he never lost sight of the great power of Prussia. He
had created them and paid with the loneliness of the last section
of his life. Only his dogs and his bodyguard were in the last
days of life with him when he left hinausgeleiten on the terrace
of his palace Sanssouci. This castle, he had himself designed,
and the great builder and architect Knobelsdorf he had built,
Brandenburg on a sand hill. Here, on the terrace of Sans Souci,
he wanted to be buried. The tomb was prepared for this. But it
turned out differently. His successor did not abide by the will,
he had put the coffin into the Garrison Church at Potsdam.
The time runs
since the death of Frederick II, 17 August 1786 rolled up to Germany
and brought new limits. And so it happened that the coffin was
Frederick the Great to 1993 in the chapel of the castle Hohenzollern
in Hechingen, Württemberg. The race of Hohenzollern had begun
on the Hohenzollern. From there she moved out of Nuremberg, Tangermünde
to Berlin and Potsdam. Here on the Hohenzollern today he has again
found his final resting place.
Wolfgang von Goethe - Germany's greatest poet
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe on the 70th Birthday (Image: Wikimedia
Commons - Stieler, Joseph Karl (1781-1858) - Public Domain)
the most famous German poet and one of the most famous poets of
the world. He has created the largest and finest literary works
of art and very many wise and proper knowledge.
a highly gifted man, and life long favored by fortune. He was
born in 1749 in Frankfurt and grew up in affluent circumstances.
His father was an educated man who led his life according to strict
principles, without ever having learned a real job. His mother,
however, was a happy, cheerful woman with warmth, humor and imagination.
Both properties had inherited his parents' son.
and Strasbourg, Goethe studied at the request of his father's
law. In his Strasbourg period falls to his love of the young Friederike
Brion in Sesenheim in Alsace. Goethe was able to dress all of
his emotions - love, sadness, pain - effortlessly into words.
He has also written of his relationship with Friederike most beautiful
Goethe was a lawyer in Frankfurt, but without that he would have
made his job fun. He would much rather have been an independent
writer. But this work could not feed him.
loved many women in his life. They gave him time and again rise
to new seals. But he first married any of them. He wanted to keep
his freedom, his independence. Frederica, and many others he has
made miserable when he left her.
year, now known as "storm and stress", in which people
feel more stressed than the intellect, as in the previous explanation.
Now Goethe wrote his first play, the passionate "Götz
von Berlichingen", and some years later, the tragedy "Egmont".
From his unhappy love for the fiancee of a friend out of the novel
"The Sorrows of Young Werther," Goethe was made world
famous. Some young men took up with unrequited love because of
the novel as Werther's life.
young Duke Karl August of Weimar, Goethe appointed as a minister
at his residence. For the poet now began a life of strict fulfillment
of duty in the service of a small duchy. To Frau von Stein he
was held in Weimar, a motherly girlfriend. It emerged narrative
poems (ballads =) as "The Erl King" and "The Fisherman".
But not until the later friendship with the poet Friedrich Schiller
suggested Goethe's poetic creativity, and again strongly.
journey to Italy (1786-88) began his "classic" period.
The plays of these years as "Iphigenia" and "Torquato
Tasso" is no longer solely emphasize the feeling. Rather,
the feeling of the mind should be tamed and refined. More particularly,
the man develop into a morally more perfect being.
return from Italy, Goethe, Christiane Vulpius took a young woman
into his house, whom he married in 1806, finally. She bore him
several children, of whom only his son August, but remained alive.
gradually more and more famous. People from many countries made
the pilgrimage to Weimar and showed him their worship. But he
withdrew more and more back from the people and their opinions.
He built his own world of beauty and ideal forms. He did research
in nature and dealt with their great fundamental laws.
in Germany and Europe, the nations against Napoleon's domination,
he forbade his son to participate in the freedom struggle. He
admired Napoleon as a great man, but he also hated war and bloodshed.
The emerging national and democratic ideas, he was opposed.
End of life
in his old age took hold again and again the passion for beautiful
and intelligent women. From his relationship with Marianne von
Willemer the "West-Eastern Divan was created. Until a great
age - he died in 1832 at the age of almost 83 years - Goethe was
a amazing creative power. His memoirs he wrote in his book "Poetry
and Truth". Shortly before his death he completed the 2nd
Part of the drama "Faust", which belongs to world literature.
In the person of his fist, he describes the way of people looking
out of the confusion of life, to the knowledge of eternal and
divine purpose: Working for the good of humanity, service to the
community. Then the fist is up in the "sky" given with
the words: "Whoever strives striving that we can deliver."
everywhere in the world, a divine power at work, especially in
important people and the laws of nature. BC, he had great reverence.
Goethe's view, every person carries a divine spark within themselves.
So that it can develop its own power to a more perfect human being.
Therefore man is good at its core. This view characterizes Goethe
as a humanist.
But just today
we can see from the many horrors in this world as imperfect and
evil man is and remains. And who is honest to himself, must before
many bad scare into himself and his thoughts. He must recognize
that there is a self-redemption, as Goethe proclaimed not to give.
That is why
Jesus was the Son of God come into our world and die for us on
the cross. In it we meet God's love and his will to redeem us.
If we enfold Jesus in our life, He forgives us our wickedness,
our sin and makes us into new people into our affairs.
Heine - a poet and fighter
In 1997, we
thought of the 200th Birthdays of the German poet Heinrich Heine
(1797-1856). Heine is known abroad than in Germany, for there
were times when many German Heine declined because of his political
beliefs, but also because he was a Jew.
at the bank counter
was born in 1797 in Dusseldorf on the Rhine. Where his father
was a merchant. Heine loved his parents very much.
school he learned from a rich uncle in Hamburg, who owned a bank.
But the job of the banker did not suit him. He much preferred
In Bonn, and
Göttingen Heine then studied law. He would later pursue a
career in the service of the state. During his studies he came
over from the Jewish to the Christian faith and was baptized.
He did so but only because he hoped that as a Christian rather
get a job with the state, as if he were a Jew.
a Christian found Heine in Germany, the State does not have employment.
It was also because of the state because he criticized the situation
A great poet
On the one
hand Heine was a poet. He wrote very beautiful, simple poems.
Not a few of them were set to music and German folk songs, such
as "I do not know, what should it mean ...".
That was the
time of Romanticism. They emphasized the feeling of the imagination.
So also Heine's poems often deal with love and beautiful and noble
sentiments. We see the girl, for example, the following poem to
so sweet and nice and clean.
Here's looking at you, and sadness
creeps into my heart.
I feel as
if I were the hands
you shall put on his head,
praying that God will receive
so pure and beautiful and sweet.
for freedom and justice
On the other
hand Heine was also a fighter for freedom, democracy and justice
and for all hungry for bread.
At that time
the princes, the nobility and the wealthy manufacturer much more
possession and a lot more political rights than ordinary people.
Heine took the aristocrats so sharply in his writings, eg In his
travel books. He called for equal rights for all people. Sometimes
he overdid it and was too hurtful and unjust. He scoffed at in
witty and ironic way, all unnatural and loggerhead in the coexistence
supported Heine's time is often the nobility and the wealthy.
They did not care that in the cities, millions of factory workers
were suffering great hardship. Many priests preached that by God,
as if God is a friend of the rich would be, and what is not true,
because Jesus was a friend of the poor and not the rich.
Heine also attacked the churches. He criticized and even ridiculed
God, as the churches of God preached: as a friend of the rich.
life in Germany was too narrow. His writings were banned or censored,
threatened to arrest him. So he moved to Paris in 1831. In France
at that time there was more freedom than in Germany.
to Heine in his writings for an understanding between France and
Germany. Even though he sometimes almost hated Germany - secretly
he loved all his life. This shows, for example, the following
I once had
a beautiful country.
The oak tree
there grew so high, the violets gently nodded --
It was a dream.
It also kissed
me in German and spoke in German
one (believe it,
how good it sounded) the words "I love you" --
It was a dream.
A Life in
married the poet Mathilde, a young Frenchwoman. It was a simple
girl with no special training. So many love affairs Heine had
previously also been - by now, he clung faithfully and with great
love to his wife. Heine studied in Paris, Karl Marx also know
loved and enjoyed life. He was confident and even a little vain.
He was never very successful. But he had through his books and
his uncle in Hamburg is always enough money to live.
Drawn by a
But some of
Heine's 35th Year of life was found in him a serious illness,
a spinal tuberculosis. In this way his body was paralyzed more.
His last years he was completely immobile in bed, in his "mattress
grave". He was almost blind, and often suffered great pain.
But his mind was, until his death awake and alive.
felt it his whole life is right for democracy and human rights
struggle. But at the end of his life he often doubted at a progress
of mankind. And we do not now see how right he was? Due to the
great freedom that people have donated to date anywhere in the
world, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. Unemployment,
crime, drug abuse and anarchy are on the rise. Man can not just
make you happy on their own, and humanity. For this he needs God.
So Heine returned
to his last years to God. He said: "I'm back from infidelity
to God. I now believe in a personal God, the wise kind, and is
fair. I know when I die, have my suffering to an end. Then I go
to God, to me will give much pleasure. "
At the end
of his life, Heine had a lot to read from the Bible and from the
books of a pious German theologians. From newspapers, he wanted
nothing more. He died at peace with God. In Paris, he is buried
Koch - fighter against germs and bacteria
scientists and doctors did not succeed with all its institutes
and laboratories, found a small, poor country doctor from Poznan.
He was able to demonstrate that certain diseases are caused by
specific pathogens. He found these pathogens, grew them in his
laboratory and worked out methods to combat it. He laid the foundation
for public health through hygiene and disinfection and sterilization
was born on 11 December 1843 in Clausthal in the resin as the
third of 13 children. His father worked in mining. Robert Koch
was the first high school and then studied mathematics and then
medicine in Gottingen. His motto even in this time was: "Never
idle!" 1866 Robert Koch was an assistant in Hamburg. There,
at that time, many people died from cholera. 1870-71 he went as
a doctor of civil war to the front. Subsequently, he became a
doctor in the vicinity of Poznan and married.
of a researcher's life
At this time
the anthrax was raging among the cattle in Europe, and many animals
died. This disease was Robert Koch get to the bottom. He saved
a lot of money for a microscope and analyzed so that dead animals.
He took millions of anthrax, the clogged in long chains or aggregated
the entire body of the animal. Even after years of silence, the
spores of this bacterium was able to develop new anthrax. 1876
Koch published his research at the University of Wroclaw. Because
we now know what these bacilli are necessary for life, one was
able to fight them successfully. The greatest discovery in the
field of the bacteria had been successful.
A new science:
led Robert Koch to conduct further research in the field of wound
infection to. For many people died when they were operated on.
Koch was able to color the different bacteria with different colors,
so they were even visible. Thus he discovered that the surgical
instruments were sterilized, and so not often people in the operation
came in contact with bacteria.
As a council
member at the Imperial Health Office, Robert Koch had the opportunity
to perform along with many other research assistants. They succeeded
him in 1882, demonstrating the tubercle bacillus. This was the
climax of his scientific career. Also, the causative agent of
diphtheria and typhoid fever have been explored by his assistants.
Expeditions took him all over the world. In India, he found the
cholera bacillus and fought it through the pollution of drinking
water. By uncovering the lives of the bacteria and Koch's methods
of research, he set the stage for medical science, all the previously
inexplicable and hard to deal with infectious diseases can be
prevented or treated effectively and more effectively.
In 1891 he
became director of the Institute for Infectious Diseases, which
had been erected for him and later received the name of Robert-Koch-Institut.
His fame went throughout the world. 1905 was awarded the Nobel
Prize for medicine awarded. Koch died on 27 May 1910 in Baden-Baden.
and Benz built the car
By 1885, Daimler
Germany is car country. With 80 million inhabitants in Germany
there are 50 million cars. A dense network of excellent highways
and motorways, "covers the land. We call this car also of
Germans' favorite toy. " This is certainly not surprising,
because the car was invented in Germany. People have always had
dreamed of a vehicle that "self", ie "auto-mobile"
(Greek autos 'self', Latin mobilis "movable") goes from
a vehicle, therefore, not taken from humans or animals or is driven
by the wind.
With the invention of the steam engine, such self-propelled vehicles
had become possible. The pressure heated steam into energy for
driving a vehicle is converted. Thus arose in the 19th Century
throughout Europe and the United States of steam powered railways.
But there were also isolated by steam moving buses, ships and
engine is big and heavy. In addition, he barely one tenth of the
converted coal as a fuel in the amount of heat contained in available
energy. It was necessary to always take great coal reserves on
sought in the 19 Century, a small, easy to use for small motor
vehicles, who won from its fuel much energy as possible. The many
small then emerging industries and of agriculture required for
such a motor.
and Karl Benz
It is surprising that two men simultaneously, but completely independently,
developed such an engine: the two Germans, Gottlieb Daimler (1834-1900)
and Karl Friedrich Benz (1844-1929). They worked only one hundred
kilometers away from each other: Daimler Benz in Stuttgart and
Mannheim, both located in the southwest of Germany in the modern
state of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Yet they have never changed a word
to each other, not even in writing.
Both developed a so-called incineration or combustion engine:
the ignition of tiny amounts of gasoline in a cylinder with the
spark of a spark plug creates a stronger Explosionsstoß
that sets in motion a piston. If such small explosions follow
one another quickly, the resulting energy to drive a vehicle.
As this process takes place in four stages, this motor also called
road to a new engine
come from Schorndorf near Stuttgart. Initially he ran with the
inventor Nicolaus August Otto (1832-1891) a machine factory in
Cologne. Otto had already received an internal combustion engine
constructed (Today's gasoline engine is also named after him).
But this was built by Otto engine was still too big and too heavy
to be able to install it in vehicles. He also drew its energy
from the ongoing explosion of tiny amounts of gas. Gas then existed
only in larger cities.
Daimler developed in Stuttgart Otto's invention in more detail
at a small, lightweight motor that could be built into vehicles.
He chose gasoline as fuel (kerosene), which was relatively low
fuel consumption, which one could go so well over longer distances.
It was a difficult
path for Daimler. Again and again in his attempts the petrol exploded
prematurely in the cylinder of the engine. This was not only dangerous
for Daimler. But that made him at times almost despair of ever
developing an engine that struck in the right moment for himself.
1885, Daimler had done it. He had invented the first engine that
could be fit well in all vehicles and ran smoothly.
How soon became
Daimler's engine in many countries to power cars, boats, sleds
and bicycles used. Daimler's first car in 1885 with his new engine
was a so-called "riding car", a kind motorcycle. It
had) 0.5 hp (horsepower and reached a speed of six kilometers
the first car
by Benz (1886)
Karl Friedrich Benz, born in Karlsruhe, wanted to develop not
only as Daimler, a new engine for a variety of vehicles. But he
had from the beginning to build the entire car in sight.
Benz was also a gifted and tenacious inventor. In his workshop
in Mannheim, he turned the petrol combustion engine developed
by a serviceable car engine. In many ways was superior to its
engine Daimler engine.
At the same
time he constructed the other parts, without which a car can not
drive: the ignition of gasoline by a strong electrical spark through
water cooling the engine, the clutch, steering and more.
1886 was his
"car" is ready. It was shaped like a coach on three
wheels, 0.9 hp and had made a lot of noise and smell - like all
early cars. Soon Benz built his cars then with four wheels.
"car" by Benz from the year 1886 is the prototype of
the car. It was the first time a car that went without any difficulties.
Its basic components are now used in all cars in the world.
cars were in the shape of a horse with an engine installed one)
(yes attaches to this day the power of an engine in "horsepower"
Daimler with his son on his motor car
Daimler also quickly build such "motor carriages". These
cars were the first not more than about two to three horsepower,
reaching speeds of more than 15 to 20 kilometers per hour. They
were all made by hand. They were very expensive and only rich
could therefore afford a car. Nevertheless, more and more people
have such a new vehicle. From the workshops of Daimler Benz in
Mannheim and Stuttgart evolved over time, a large auto factories.
Once made, the wife of Benz and her two boys on a motor coach
of her husband, even a well-respected advertising trip from Mannheim
to Pforzheim (Distance 70 km). Perhaps it was the first woman
at the helm! She had to go, even while her garter as a sacrifice
for insulating material. Her husband had known about this trip
In other countries,
for example in France, England and Italy, we soon began to produce
cars. The motor coaches were given a roof, the body was created.
More and more developed the car to its present form.
they began to carry out car racing. Also because the car was becoming
more popular. Today is the car in many countries, a mass transportation
the starting line
A car dealer in France was one day the German Daimler cars after
his daughter's name "Mercedes". Since arriving from
Stuttgart Daimler cars carry the name. Your character is a star
with three rays surrounded by a circle.
In 1926, the two car plants of Daimler and Benz were the two oldest
car factories in the world, united in a large factory in Stuttgart.
It bears the name "Mercedes Benz". Today it provides
well-equipped cars in all parts of the world. After the merger
with the American company Chrysler, the name of Benz will not
appear again. The new company then hot "Daimler-Chrysler."
The car -
now a problem?
The car has
the dream of people from a self-propelled vehicle achieved. By
car you can get there at any time, anywhere. It is thus in a sense
independent of time and space.
But this ideal
mode today with its stress on the environment creates major problems.
That is why some people want to abolish liked the car back or
restrict its use greatly.
a car you can imagine the lives of people anywhere. Therefore,
it is the car in some form always exist. Only we will increasingly
have to seek to construct and build cars that pollute as little
God says in
the Bible to us humans: "Take possession of the earth"
(1. Genesis 1:28). By car, the man met a piece of that contract.
But God also says: "We should preserve the earth to protect
them from harm and as God's good creation (1.Mose get 2.15). And
the urgent solution of this problem, man must work with great
Mann - citizens and artists
is one of the most important novelists of the 20th German language
Century, but he hated the Germans because they had brought Hitler
to power and drove him into exile in the United States, where
he lived from 1939 to 1952. At the same time he always felt as
a German. He had grown up here. He loved Germany and its culture.
was born in the old commercial city of Lübeck on the Baltic
Sea 1875th He came from a distinguished family. His father was
a merchant and alderman ..
Mann has always felt as a citizen. Be a citizen meant to him:
be healthy in life, act sensibly, be diligent and make money,
have to be a natural man with warmth and humor, ethics, stand
up for humanity and democracy.
All of this
was Thomas Mann, he was married, loved his wife, with whom he
had six children, he was an industrious writer, the well-deserved
and dignified living, and he stood up for reason and humanity.
During the war he held by the United States for the Germans against
... And artists
At the same time, however, as Thomas Mann said, especially the
artistically gifted people often experience something special,
extraordinary, for example, a great love. Only then can an artist
create a great work of art. It breaks through the man but the
civil orders (eg if it enters into another marriage). Although
he is happy doing it, he can thus produce great works of art.
But he also often destroyed in the process itself
to healthy people, therefore, the artist, although a sensitive,
brilliant, but also a sick man, a loner. He is a brother of criminals
and madmen. "
did remain in the orders of the bourgeoisie. They gave him security
and gave him joy in life. But he always felt the dangers of the
artist, for example, the danger of homosexuality.
In many of
his stories and novels of Thomas Mann describes the extraordinary
people, the "artist". His first major book, The Buddenbrooks
(1901) made him famous. It is his most widely read and most-loved
book. He received the Nobel Prize. He relates to the decline of
a Lübeck family over four generations (his own) of healthy,
successful businessman to the sensitive and vulnerable artist.
In his novel
The Magic Mountain 1924) (he sees the whole of European culture
threatened by decay. In Joseph and His Brethren (1926-1942) while
Joseph is also a brilliant individuals, but creates new, saving
ordinances. In Dr. Faustus (1947), the great artist ends in madness.
in the novels of Thomas Mann perish externally or internally,
as well as in his family, his two sisters and two of his children
died by suicide, many were drug addicts and homosexual.
From his works
it is evident that Thomas Mann did not know God. Who gives his
life in the hands of God, not have to go into the dangers of life
is based. God can save us in all dangers, if we stick to it.
is the world's most famous contemporary German writers. It follows
the narrative techniques of the 19th Century, especially on the
sweeping style of writing of Leo Tolstoy. He writes an exemplary
German. He tells interesting, always with a bit of sarcasm and
irony. Mann's novels, short stories and novels reflect the complex
intellectual, cultural and social sensitivities of the 20 Century
in their changing, partly in direct relation contemporary history,
partly historically clothed.
are distributed worldwide in about 10 million copies. His brother
Henry, left-standing, is a prominent writer. Most members of the
family man was a writer.
His last years
spent in Switzerland, Thomas Mann. He died there in 1955th
Kant - a great philosopher
(When the Russian troops in 1945 Konigsberg now Kaliningrad) in
East Prussia, extending conquered, they protected the tomb of
the philosopher Kant Two hundred years ago, he died. Kant was
perhaps the greatest philosopher of modern times.
Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Konigsberg. He grew up in a
religious home. His father was a simple craftsman. With 46 years
Kant was a professor of metaphysics at the University of Konigsberg.
Kant was a
profound thinker, and so he asked: "What we can see from
the things around us and how we can do that? He discovered that
knowledge arises from the fact that we are unconnected things
of the outside world through our human mind in order to make understandable.
For example, with the help of space and time and cause and effect.
The Kant describes in his essay "Critique of Pure Reason.
Kant is saying
that man can with his mind, his reason is not everything. It depends
on the things of the outside world. But the outside world, matter,
not even mastered the man. Man can arrange through his mind, get
In this way,
Kant to reconcile idealism and materialism. He overcame so that
the Enlightenment of the 18th Century, and helped by the emergence
of German classicism.
a "supreme being"?
In his essay
"Critique of Practical Reason," Kant says: "God,
man can not see, however, neither the nature nor in history, for
he can not see God, yes. Yet there must be God, because everyone
knows about good and evil. There must be someone who once punished
evil and rewarded the good. That is God. "Therefore, man
must also possess immortality.
demanded reverence for God and the Bible, but God was for him
only the creator of the world. With everyday life, God has little
to do. Jesus as the mediator with God, Kant did not know. Kant
had only a weak, vague idea of God. Religion was mostly for him
morality. With his "categorical imperative," Kant taught
a strict ethics.
But God is
not just a requirement of morality. Rather it is a living person.
Already on the wonderful design of nature, we recognize God's
greatness and vitality. And anyone who believes in God, always
feel again how God speaks to him, answering his prayers, acts
in his life.
is still enormous, both directly and indirectly, but positively
or negatively. In Germany they speak little of God as a living,
experiential person, not even in theology. For many, God is just
a mere thought, a vague "supreme being". This is with
A quiet life
order. He rose daily at five clock in the morning. When a pen
or a pair of scissors were only slightly shifted from its place
or if a chair was not at his usual place, he became restless and
desperate. After his walk at the same time his neighbors put their
clocks. Konigsberg has rarely leave Kant, East Prussia never.
Kant was not
married. He said that unmarried young men to stay longer, "perhaps
because they do not (married to) take into yoke" was. But
in spite of his pedantic way Kant a happy man. He was fond of
gay conversation among his friends and liked to joke. In 1804
he died . His last words were: "It is good."
- a theologian and resistance fighter
around the world know the name of Bonhoeffer. He died 60 years
ago in the struggle against the Hitler regime.
could have led a good life. In 1906 he was in a fashionable middle-class
family born in Breslau. His father was a renowned professor of
psychiatry in Berlin. Dietrich was richly endowed, at age 21 he
was already a doctor of theology. He could have become a famous
professor of theology. He enjoyed the finer things in life: art,
good food, travel.
As he read
the Bible, the words of Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount: God
wants us to obey him completely. Then he decided for God and for
his fellow human beings live. He said: "There are fulfilling
lives in spite of many unfulfilled desires." So he began
working as a pastor in Berlin in the service of the Evangelical
the suffering people were Bonhoeffer's heart. In the years after
1930 million people were unemployed in Germany, many starved and
froze. Bonhoeffer asked: "The church must be the church for
In 1933 Hitler
came to power in Germany. He promised the people work and bread.
Millions cheered him. Even in the churches he had supporters.
But he ruled with terror and murder. He fought against the Jews.
rejected so from the Nazi regime. He was against war and for peace
between peoples. He gathered together with others in the evangelical
church committed to the Bible Christians in the "Confessing
Church". Many Christians and pastors sent to concentration
camps, some were killed.
A hard road
began the 2nd World War II. Soon Bonhoeffer: By Hitler recognized
are still millions of people die in war and in concentration camps.
So he decided to cooperate with others to kill Hitler. Hitler's
assassination seemed to be a smaller debt to God, than to let
millions of people killed by Hitler.
was willing to sacrifice his life. But he wondered whether he
could endure torture and death if they would arrest him. However,
he said to himself: "God gives us in any emergency as much
resistance as we need. But he gives them to us in advance so we
do not rely on ourselves but on God."
was arrested. But could not prove any great sin. In prison in
Berlin, he could even write letters to his family and his fiancee.
These letters collected by his friend later in the famous book
"Resistance and resignation." Bonhoeffer in prison a
lot of thought about how you can speak to the modern unbelieving
people about God.
of Magdeburg - met the love of God
the City of Otto the Great, has a 1,200 years of turbulent history.
On the history of the city is also a woman whose name is closely
connected with the city: Mechthild of Magdeburg. She was born
800 years ago in a castle in the Magdeburg area and was - unusually
for those days for girls - a comprehensive education. Even as
a young girl she left the castle and openly confessed: "My
living is not the nobility. God has other, bigger plans for me."
God was for them not simply a higher power, but a real loving
you. This personal relationship with God filled her life so that
she had to write down everything that moved them into the depths
of her heart. A great sense Mechthild transforming power of prayer.
She writes: "The prayer makes a bitter sweet heart, happy
sad heart, a poor heart rich, a foolish heart wise, a timid heart
brave, strong with a weak heart, a heart blind to see. It attracts
the great God in a small heart. It drives the hungry soul up to
the god of wealth. "
does not choose the path to the monastery, but closes at the Magdeburg
poverty movement, true to its intent: "What is God's hope,
that I dare. I was drawn to the love of God into the city."
The words of Jesus: "the poor will proclaim the Gospel"
(Matthew 11:5) had deeply touched her. She turns the poorest of
the poor: the outcast, the sick, the dying, widows and orphans.
She gives them human and spiritual support, and - as far as it
is possible - it also relieves the material and physical needs.
Mechthild does this service alone. At that time, formed in Magdeburg,
a sister movement. The young women live in shared accommodation,
share their possessions with each other. Since they are not subordinate
to the official regulations of the church, they had to endure
many insults and hostility. Young women living alone, which was
then considered scandalous. Mechthild, however, was a confident,
courageous woman who encouraged her sisters again to continue
their work among the needy. A lot of support and comfort she received
from her confessor, under whose influence she wrote her book "The
flowing light of God." This work was highly controversial
during his lifetime by Mechthild: A woman, especially without
a university education, writes in German, not in Latin - the language
of scholars - a book about their experiences with God and God's
love. That was unusual, even more: that the Church seemed to be
too dangerous. Vanished as her work for centuries in oblivion.
of Magdeburg was a visionary. But their visionary abilities were
not world-flight. She lived with God in this world. With their
gift of inner vision of God shows lines that God and the world
combine. When reading Mechthild's writings one gets the impression
that she was a surviving contemporary and not a woman who has
worked 800 years ago. Mechthild writes: "The love bids me.
What they want is what is to be done, and what God his hope, that
With a holy,
loving attention Mechthild reads the Bible. She writes:
the way of love is to me no abortion. A sacred attention to God
we should carry at all times in us."
The life of
Mechthild of Magdeburg, is perceptible that the great love can
be to God in simple love and mercy to his fellow men a reality
which is "what is God's hope."
Nietzsche - fighting against God
and pull whizzing flight to the city.
Soon it will snow --
woe to him who has no home!
are from a poem written by a man who "had no home,"
because he had broken away from God, Friedrich Nietzsche (from
1844 to 1900).
was raised in a Christian home. His father was an evangelical
pastor. At his confirmation, he believed firmly and wholeheartedly
in God. But later at the high school, he gave up his faith. He
knew of God and separated from him anyway. He became a fighter
against God. "God is dead," he preached.
was exceptionally talented and has already got 24 years in Basel,
a professor of philology. In numerous writings he initially opposed
all scientific theorizing, all the overvaluation of the "reason",
all philistines. Instead, he called for a powerful affirmation
of life. From the Dionysian frenzy of affection arises all true
His most important
works are: "The Birth of Tragedy", "Thus Spake
Zarathustra, Beyond Good and Evil," "Antichrist"
and "The Will to Power." He writes vivid and lifelike.
Lou Salomé, Paul Ree and Friedrich Nietzsche 1882 (Image:
Wikimedia Commons - Public domain)
increasing pain tormenting the head and eyes, Nietzsche did retire
in 1879, abandoning his professorship.
confess that God is our "castle", a refuge in times
of need (Psalm 91.2). In him we find "shelter", a "home"
in sickness and Zerbruch. Nietzsche was, however, in his distance
from God "homeless." He took after his retirement, a
restless, wandering life in Switzerland, northern Italy, on the
Riviera, constant improvement and cure in vain search of his health.
exterior was matched by his inner homelessness. Everyone needs
a role model, an ideal to which he can hold on, look up to where
he can. Our only sure footing in life can not be a man, but God
alone. All other models and sizes are man-made idols. You let
us down sooner or later. Yes, they can, as in Nietzsche, cause
a person's life and terrible destruction in the world.
had abandoned the God who created for himself to replace the "super-man,"
the master race. He put the man in the place of God. He preached
the idea of the training and upbringing of new human elite stratum.
of all values
This new master
race is not bound by any ethical standards. He is "the free,
beautiful beast," says Nietzsche. This new man is to enjoy
life with all senses. The "body" is to prevail against
Christian compassion disrupts the joy in life, Nietzsche rejects
as "slave morality" as a consolation here is too short
comers to the afterlife.
the elite men is the mass of the people nothing but "the
vermin of the earth's crust" (which can be avoided as you
want). Hence, Nietzsche also rejected democracy and socialism.
man affirms his fate, even if it is meaningless, and gives him
a sense (which is the basic idea of the later Heidegger and Sartre,
fought against the entire Western Christian values, thanks to
which Europe and the whole world their moral principles and their
culture. Millions of young people were particularly criminal captured
by Nietzsche's ideas. Nietzsche thus became the intellectual forerunner
of Nazism. What he preached, the Nazis put into practice in a
has seduced millions of people. His fight against God has clearly
demonic and anti-Christian traits.
God everything is permitted"
We can see
Nietzsche and his fate: Without God we are internally and often
externally displaced. Our life depends on our reverence for God.
thought that the new boss man without God would bring about a
new culture and enjoy higher highest happiness. The opposite was
the case. The realization of his ideas by the Nazis led to the
destruction of all culture in many countries in Europe and the
indescribable suffering of millions of people.
once said: "If there is no God, everything is permitted",
up to the Holocaust and the destruction of all culture. Nietzsche
is the best example.
the atheist, who died in extreme "homelessness". The
last twelve years of his life, he dawned mentally deranged meaning
DHER no longer lived in full consciousness.
and the discovery of quantum theory
ago, that the German physicist Max Planck made his great discovery.
Who is this man, and why its discovery was so important?
Planck, 1858 born, came from a family of scholars. He was very
talented. Despite his great skill, he was a modest and gentle
man. Before and after 1 World War Planck decades professor of
physics at the University of Berlin. There then taught many famous
physicists, for example, Albert Einstein. Planck had brought him
to Berlin and was close friends with him.
In 1900 Planck
discovered the so-called named after him, "Planck's constant,
known in physics since h with the letter. What is it?
When a body
is heated, it gives off energy in the form of heat and light.
Scientists had believed that this energy would be given continuously,
ie without interruption. It was thought that "nature makes
discovered that energy is not continuous from one body, but is
made in leaps, in "packets", called "quanta".
This made the amount of energy (quanta are) always a multiple
of Planck's constant h, ie, multiplied by h.
not so, as we previously believed, in the quantities delivered
1,2,3,4,5 etc.. But it is assumed that given h 2, in the quantities
2 (2 times 1), 4 (2 times 2), 6 (2 times 3), 8 (2 times 4, etc.).
Is this discovery
for our lives really so important? Yes, even if we here can not
explain further. Planck's constant h is indeed a fixed, immutable
constant of nature, a constant size. Wherever energy is released,
it exists in nature, in the smallest atom of earthly substance,
as well as on the sun. Without this constant electron could not
move around a nucleus around, because they thereby release energy,
it was not for the many different colored fabrics in our world,
the sun could emit no light and no heat, there would be no nuclear
constant could understand many things in nature in earnest. Therefore,
Planck received 1918 Nobel Prize for his discovery.
But for our
everyday lives Planck's discovery was of great benefit. Without
them there would be today, for example, no computers, no lasers,
no solar power.
discovery of the idea was taken from the structure of our world,
the more solid foundation. If nature makes leaps, seems much less
fixed in nature, as was previously intended. Therefore, looking
at Max Planck, despising the authority of any foreign, his discovery
was skeptical at first.
Can it be
coincidence that the orders of human life (eg marriage, family,
country) since their stability have lost? Always scientific discoveries
have influenced the overall thinking of the people. There are
certainly connections that we do not understand. Since 1933, Planck
was suffering severely under the dictatorship of the Nazis. His
own son was killed because he opposed Hitler. Planck also lost
his first wife and several of his children by death. The end of
the 2nd World War I brought the critically ill 87-year-old learned
a lot of misery
had a deep belief in a benevolent destiny, or a benevolent God.
In his grief, he said: "God's ways are not our ways. But
that trust in him to help us through the difficult trials through.
died in Göttingen. Some academic institutions now bear his
name and many German 2-DM coins bear his image.
von Schiller, a great German poet
Germany was divided into many individual states. These have also
been ruled by Napoleon. And yet, Germany has never produced such
great men in literature, philosophy and art than in those decades.
Among these great personalities are also the poets Goethe and
von Schiller was born in 1759 in the town of Marbach am Neckar,
near Stuttgart. His father was a simple officer in the service
of the Duke of Wuerttemberg. Schiller was deeply attached to his
mother. She was a quiet, devout woman. Therefore, he wanted to
become a priest as a child.
13 years Schiller had to leave his parents' house. On the orders
of the Duke of Wurttemberg, he had to go from now on, a military
academy near Stuttgart, then a school for future soldiers. Here
he remained eight years. He felt at this school like a prison.
Because the students had little freedom there, they were forced
time, Schiller's love comes to freedom. He secretly wrote in these
years his first play "The Robbers". In this drama, he
calls for a fight against all tyrants and dictators. Those were
some of the German princes, but there were also good among them.
Napoleon was later a particular dictator.
school, Schiller was a simple military doctor, because he had
learned at school some medicine. This job gave him but no joy.
Not by much
Schiller then made behave in Mannheim his play "The Robbers".
The drama was a huge success. Then the Duke of Wurttemberg forbade
Schiller to write plays about. But Schiller would just write plays,
he was a true poet. He also wanted to be forced by the Duke does
not amount to anything.
Schiller fled 1782 from Wuerttemberg state to another German.
This was dangerous for him and a big gamble. For now, he deserves
nothing more. He was a poet still unknown. What should he live
out during the years 1782 to 1789 by Germany and forth. He suffered
much hardship Sometimes a poem has been reprinted from him. )
Also have arisen in recent years play "Kabale (= intrigue
and love," was performed. In it Schiller describes how to
love a young nobleman and a simple peasant girl and get married
because of their different stations can not. Both perish eventually.
all that Schiller did not get much money. He also was frequently
ill. But again and again joy and admirers took him into her home
and helped him out for a time of need
A new life
Schiller, Goethe and the Brothers and Sisters of Humboldt
received by the help of Goethe a job as a professor of history
at Jena in Saxony. Now he had a secure income. Therefore, he could
now marry his fiancee Charlotte Lengefeld. Jena was also close
to Weimar. There, in his residence of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar,
Goethe and many other poets, artists and scholars had gathered.
years, Schiller wrote no drama and only a few poems. He occupied
himself with history and now a lot of philosophical questions,
especially with the philosophy of Kant. By Kant, he learned that
the man is a moral, ethical beings. He has the task to combat
its poor, low impulses in himself and an ever more perfect, better
A great friendship
Goethe becoming better acquainted. Both men were very different.
Goethe had never suffered material needs, while Schiller had to
undergo much hardship with money worries and illness. When Goethe
wrote or scientific work, he must be able to see and feel everything.
Schiller, however, dealt better with theoretical concepts such
as Beauty or love of humanity. Therefore, Schiller's language
is not as natural as that of Goethe, but often somewhat artificial
and pathetic. Nevertheless, it can inspire our imagination and
his language. But despite these differences arose between the
two poets ever closer friendship and great respect.
moved to Weimar. He bought a house there for himself and his family.
The friendship between Goethe and him were both inspired to write
poetry again. Even before that Schiller had the spectacle of "Don
Carlos" written ". Now the drama Wallenstein arisen,
"" The Maid of Orleans "and" Mary Stuart ".
In this drama Schiller tells how the Queen Mary by her opponent,
Queen Elizabeth, is unjustly sentenced to death. But she affirmed
her death, by accepting him as a punishment for a previous debt
in their lives. So they inwardly win over Elizabeth, although
it is externally based.
In the poem
"The Bell" Schiller describes the path of man from his
birth until his death. His last completed drama "William
Tell". In it he describes the struggle of the Swiss under
their leader Tell.
Like no other
poet Schiller has struggled to become an ever more perfect human
being and relieve others through his plays and writings. He hunted
for the ideal, the highest and greatest. Therefore, it is also
called an idealist.
a brave man, a courageous fighter and a hard worker. He demanded
much of himself. Therefore, he was often ill. He has since passed
away 1805 with 46 years in Weimar. He would have been able to
create some great work. With it, Germany lost its greatest poet
often of God. He says for example live in his poem "Ode to
Joy": "Brothers, above the starry canopy must be a good
father" (set to music by Beethoven in his 9th Symphony).
But God was for Schiller just a mere thought. Talking to God in
prayer, listen to God's voice to seek help from God - could not
Schiller. Everything he did, he wanted to do on their own, without
While we humans
can achieve on its own lot. But if we look at the world with its
multiple emergency today, we realize how powerless man is basically.
Schiller could not go on fighting his fight for good when he had
to die in the middle of his life. There was all joy for him to
But if we
can get us through Jesus to God, we are cared for by God and loved
forever. Then we also can not take the life of death. Then we
know that we are not men, but God is even a world without suffering,
without creating tears or death.
von Siemens: A Great Inventor
has been invented first discovered in Europe, designed, built
and manufactured, can be seen in the Deutsches Museum in Munich
and experience. The name and the plan for the permanent exhibition,
which shows not only the history of technology, but also their
date, 1877, a man was already prepared, who was one of the great
inventors of our time: Werner von Siemens. He not only created
the term "electrical engineering", he also determined
decisively what is meant by the word soon. The original of his
dynamo, which he designed in 1866 and composed, you can see the
immense importance of the museum not. With the help of wire coils
and soft iron, it was here, Siemens managed to convert character
- for example, manpower or water - into electricity and vice versa
put electricity into work. He was the founder of modern power
born in 1816 in the city of Hanover as the fourth oldest of fourteen
children. After attending a grammar school in Lübeck, he
wanted to be an engineer. Because his parents could not afford
an education, Werner applied for admission into the army as an
officer cadet. After a good passing an exam, he was a soldier.
How happy was he when he began a three-year training in the artillery
and engineering school was ordered to Berlin! Any available time
is used, the young soldier to deal outside of the service with
physics, chemistry and technology. After the expiry of three years
he received his first home leave. But then he saw his father and
mother for the last time, they soon died. Werner had promised
to care for younger siblings. To supply the siblings, he was the
inventor as a sideline. In a very practical things, he directed
his thoughts, because it had plenty of money to be procured. Sun
created a stone press, a steam engine controller and a new printing
process. When he invented a method for electroplating gold and
silver plating, she sold his brother William to England.
William went to England for ever, he succeeded Werner Siemens,
out of Magdeburg, and finally come to Berlin. There were already
several machine shops, Borsig locomotive at the head of the construction
by August. Its engines had been found in comparative rides even
better than the English. Also, there was a technical school, a
polytechnic and a club Physical Society, and the great naturalist
Alexander von Humboldt gave his famous lectures. The whole town
was interested in science and technology.
advantage of every opportunity for continuing education. As he
himself held in the Physical Society a lecture on electric telegraph,
was the University of mechanics Halske attention to him. He was
an artist in his field, and so impressed by the work designed
by Werner Siemens pointer telegraph, that he decided, with the
talented lieutenant. This now developed all the parts that are
necessary for a viable communications technology: flash fuse,
porcelain insulators and with gutta-percha, a rubber-like sap,
seamless, insulated underground pipes. On 1/10/1847 was then the
"Telegraphenbau-Anstalt von Siemens and Halske founded, while
Siemens was still an officer in the main job.
telegraph line in Europe
the first orders for the company: She put the telegraph line Berlin
- Frankfurt. As here, the National Assembly elected the King of
Prussia to the German hereditary emperor, who was known in the
same hour in Berlin. The people were amazed, and Werner Siemens
was the hero of the day with this first telegraph line in Europe.
It was raining now contracts, first in Germany, then in Russia.
There, the younger brother Carl was gone. Werner Siemens could
now take leave after 15 years of military service and devoted
himself entirely to the orders and always new improvements and
inventions. They were, as well as solid and enduring work of his
workshop, a more persuasive advertisement than words. Siemens
also did not intend to be good, but constant products earn his
money, but its best efforts to promote the development of his
electrical engineering further. He viewed his task for the benefit
of all. In the First World Industrial Exhibition in London in
1851 he received for his telegraph, in addition to proven Alfred
Krupp and a few other medals, the highest price. This gave his
company a great swing. From the workshop, and he moved to Halske
in a factory.
Over the next
two years, the brothers Carl and Werner Siemens built telegraph
lines from St. Petersburg via Moscow and Kiev to Odessa and from
St. Petersburg to Warsaw and Silesia, to Finland and Kronstadt.
This cable had to be put through the Baltic Sea. Together with
Wilhelm and Carl as Siemens Brothers mastered the tireless inventor
later, the giant London-Calcutta in India. For these Indo-European
line of nearly 11 000 km length, he developed new, improved writing
telegraph. Across continents and oceans, mountains and steppes
to work before the builders were transported the iron poles. Even
the ocean was not an insurmountable obstacle. From Ireland to
New York a transatlantic cable was laid. In addition, Siemens
had built its own cable ship, the "Faraday". By Störversuche
hostile companies and the fact that the cable is pulled out at
sea and disappeared in 5 000 m depth, the expedition was an exciting
adventure. Five less stressful followed: The name Siemens has
been well known.
For the steel-making,
the brothers invented the Siemens-Martin process. Intended for
the mining industry has been constructed an electric railway and
shown at the Berlin Industrial Exhibition. Frohlich 10 000 visitors
undertook a journey with them. Also developed by him alternators
were soon big business. With its bright light bulbs conquered
the cities and were soon used in mining. In Berlin, there were
soon electric street lighting and tramways. Since 1877, in Berlin
set up the first set, produced by Siemens - and at first dismissed
as a technical gimmick. But Siemens had already foreseen as the
telegraph, the enormous need for information of the time.
In 1885 the
company employed 1 100 workers in Berlin. Soon a whole district
of the name "Siemens City contributed. Therefore, he also
held his helpers, factory workers of the opposite obligation.
He created, much earlier than the state, for illness, accidents
and old age a pension fund, because "I would burn the money
earned, such as red-hot iron in his hand, if I were not loyal
assistant to the expected contributions," said Werner Siemens
At the World
Exhibition in electrical engineering in 1881 in Paris, the House
of Siemens was awarded an honorary diploma. Werner Siemens was
awarded numerous honors. He received an honorary doctorate degree
and was appointed as a member of the Academy of Sciences. In 1888
he received the title of nobility. Since then, his name was Werner
von Siemens. He died on 6 December 1892 in Berlin.
Kepler, the founder of modern astronomy
we see how the sun rising in the east and sets in the west. The
sun is shining, therefore, revolve around the earth. It was believed
in antiquity and in the Middle Ages. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473
- 1543) was discovered that the earth revolves around the sun.
is not the center
That was a
bold assertion. For then the earth is indeed no longer in the
center around which everything revolves. One might think: The
earth is then just a random star without any special meaning.
Everything on Earth is ultimately meaningless. Even in God's existence
then it must be doubted is no security, no firm orders and bounds,
the universe would be infinite.
Johannes Kepler has shown that even if the earth is not the center
of the world, yet there is everywhere in the universe order, and
harmony. And from this we can learn that everything in life has
of us as human beings in the universe makes sense. God created
the world and means well by us humans.
born 1571st He was an astronomer and soon became a famous scholar.
He wrote numerous books on the movements of celestial bodies and
the creation of the universe, on optics and geometry. He wrote
the first science fiction novel.
of God's creation
not be a professor in his home in Tübingen, Württemberg,
he led a restless, wandering life in Habsburg Austria. He worked
from 1594 in Graz, later in Prague at the court of Emperor Rudolf
II, then in Linz, and finally in Silesia. As a Protestant, he
was expelled from the Catholic Church several times, and sometimes
had his salary by his employers for lack of funds not be disbursed.
Before his death he was still feeling the horrors of the Thirty
Years War (1618-1648) before he died in 1630.
very inquisitive and constantly researching. He was a talented,
tenacious thinker. He was modest and honest, but critical, witty
achievement is the discovery of the three "Kepler's laws."
In it he describes the motion of the planets around the sun. The
first law states: All the planets move in an egg-shaped elliptical
(not circular, as we previously thought) around the Sun, stands
in the sun at one focus. The second law is: The more the planets
are further away from the sun, the slower they run.
has shown that even in space law and order prevail. Galileo has
established the physics of the experiment. Kepler has extended
the physics in space.
how e.g. a clock in the little ones a manufacturer must have (for
nothing emerge on its own), so too must the great "movement"
of the universe have a creator: God is omnipotent and omniscient.
God for the success of his work. He was amazed at God's creation
and prayed: "Thank you, God, my Creator, because you have
given me pleasure in the, what you've done. I have made the glory
of thy works known to man to capture as much of its infinite richness,
my little mind could. "
von Kleist - a misunderstood genius
great artists and scientists in their time are not detected. They
often suffer misery and some die young. Including Heinrich von
Kleist, one of the greatest German poet.
born in 1777 in Frankfurt / Oder in the Prussian military family.
After several years as a soldier, he began a restless, wandering
life to Switzerland and Paris. His engagement, he broke up again.
He wanted to be a poet like his contemporaries Goethe and Schiller.
Later Kleist lived in Dresden and finally in Berlin.
and restless man
friendly and cordial, but also be aggressive. He was a poet very
ambitious. Kleist always seemed to suffer an inner sadness. He
was a restless, discontented man. Kleist, who had known God as
a child, no longer believed in him. But God would help him, comfort
him, and can give him inner peace.
If the thunder
of the war wagon,
Human arm, on the discord reputation
People who carry in their hearts  heart,
People who created the God of love:
I think so, but you can rob me of anything,
Not the peace, the self-proven,
Not the innocence, not faith in God,
The hatred, how to stand the shock.
Not the maple dark shadow resist,
That he left me in the wheat field, refreshed,
And do not disturb the song of the nightingale,
The quiet bosom delighted me.
Heinrich von Kleist (1792/93)
We can not recognize the ultimate truth. The world is incomprehensible
to us. We do not act based on clear evidence, clear ethical and
moral principles, but we act on the basis of powerful emotions
that rule us.
are often negative, for example Hatred and destructiveness. Kleist's
characters make their own decisions about their innermost feelings,
without regard to the society: How the Amazon Queen Penthesilea
mangled in the tragedy of her lover Achilles result of an error
and then kills himself. In the story "Michael Kohlhaas"
this fanatical fighting for his rights and is thereby itself a
robber and murderer.
knows positive and serene feeling. For example, fidelity in marriage
or love, as in the still played "great historical drama Knight"
"The Kathy of Heilbronn. His humorous comedy "The Broken
Jug" is still often performed today, just as his latest drama
"The Prince of Homburg. The Prince is victorious over his
feeling that wants to destroy him. He recognizes that there are
ethical and moral principles, and he obeys them. This is a new
life given to him.
a brilliant playwright. But his stories are masterpieces. Your
language is concentrated and dramatic, forward urgently. Kleist's
poetry is attributed to any literary school, it foreshadows the
modern world and takes advance mainly by the tension-filled language,
was no recognition in his time. He was poor, his family disowned
him, Napoleon's reign over Germany made him bitter. God, he did
not know. Thus he saw no way out. Together with the seriously
ill bird Henrietta (* 1773), whose acquaintance he had made only
on the same day, he took on 21.11.1811 at Wannsee, near Berlin's
life. He was a man of us does, however flawed, sorry.
Rose" - students against Hitler
Hans Scholl (1918-1943)
it a fact that today every honest German is ashamed of his government?"
So said a leaflet was distributed in February 1943 at the University
of Munich. Behind them were young students who are no longer the
crimes of the Nazi government to stand by Watch wanted. They were
even prepared to fight a criminal to sacrifice their lives.
called itself the "White Rose". It included the siblings
Hans and Sophie Scholl, Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf, Christoph
Probst and Professor Kurt Huber. The group had around her numerous
They all opposed
the Nazis from the State because he took the man to freedom. Everyone
in Germany was so think and act like the Nazis. Those who did
not obey, finally came to a concentration camp. There, people
were tortured and often killed.
Sophie Scholl (1921-1943)
But most Germans
knew nothing about it. They cheered Hitler, as initially, the
Scholls. Hitler had given the millions of unemployed in Germany
to work and prosperity, and he had again made Germany strong and
Hitler began to persecute the Jews and kill them. And in 1939
he invaded one country after another. Million people died from
medical students rebelled against it. But what should they do?
They could not eliminate Hitler. So they began to distribute leaflets
against him. In mid-1942 and early 1943, they printed some leaflets
in a run of several thousand copies each. These six different
leaflets sent them by post to students, and strangers from the
phone book. In it they called for the sabotage, and to overthrow
Hitler. They demanded freedom of speech and thought, democracy,
and more wage earners for the worse.
of the "White Rose" were initially idealists. But they
searched passionately for God. "Sophie Scholl wrote in 1942:"
I am God, yet so far away that I did not even feel in prayer.
But I want to cling to the rope to me God in Jesus Christ has
thrown. And her brother said in the same year: "What I have
found strength in prayer! At last I know, at what ever flowing
spring I remove my terrible thirst.
Early in 1943,
had the students in Munich at night several times painted on walls
of many houses phrases such as "Down with Hitler" and
"Long live freedom." Many reading these words, the people
became restless. Shortly before the German army at Stalingrad
had been defeated by the Russians.
On 18 Distributed
in February 1943, the two Scholls morning in the stairwell of
the University of Munich, hundreds of copies of the sixth leaflet.
They were observed and arrested. Four days later, they were already
condemned to death, and on the same day they died by the guillotine.
The other four members of the "White Rose" were also
executed in the coming months.
people all went quiet and faithful to their deaths. They knew
they were so young, what they died and believed that they would
see themselves in God's presence again. The two Scholl took the
sacrament before their execution. As Sophie said goodbye to her
mother said this to her: "Not true, Sophie believe in Jesus,
now he takes to himself." "But you also have confidence
in him," replied Sophie.
Mörike - a lyric poet
He is perhaps
the most important lyric poet of Germany. His love and nature
poems are among the finest in German literature. This year we
are celebrating his 200th Birthday: Eduard Mörike
Eduard Mörike was born on 8.9.1804 in Ludwigsburg near Stuttgart
in Wurttemberg. He did not possess much physical strength. He
always led a quiet, somewhat secluded life. This shows for example
his poem "Prayer". Nevertheless, he had many friends
and acquaintances. Thus, the poet Storm, Keller and Turgenev.
Lord, send what you want,
a love or sorrow,
I am pleased that both
flows from your hands.
Wilt with pleasure
and wilt with disease
I do not overwhelm.
But in the middle
modesty is lovely.
a Protestant minister. But he preferred poetry. He, too, was often
sickly. He was for years only a curate in various villages in
Württemberg. Once he fell unhappy. The engagement with another
woman, he dissolved after four years. But for the two compounds,
he wrote beautiful love poems.
In the poem
"At midnight" Moerike describes the feeling of calmness
and depth of the night, linger in the still in a dream the events
of the day:
night climbed ashore,
leans dreamily at the mountain wall.
Your eye sees the golden scales now
the same time in quiet repose shells.
And bold indicate the sources of noise,
they sing of the mother, the night's ear
been during the day by day.
beautiful images in his poems. Many poems express a sense: for
example, about the joy of spring, homesickness, the awakening
in the morning, trust in God, love, joy and pain, premonitions
of death. Moerike Poetry makes the reference to antiquity, recognized
the folk song, to Goethe and the Romantics. The classical-romantic
ballad tradition continues, he led.
finally gained a permanent parish in the village Cleversulzbach.
An unmarried sister took care of it. But after nine years he was
retiring from teaching, with a modest pension of 280 guilders
a year. Through literature teaching at a girls' school in Stuttgart,
he earned something about it. The age of 47 he married. Two daughters
were born to him.
wrote a novel and several short stories and fairy tales. But until
today the best known are his lyrical poems. In his time he was
recognized but only slightly.
easily write. His poems are full of real life. They are almost
always affectionately - cheerful, often permeated with a little
humor. In later years he has produced more "realistic"
poems. E.g. the poem "September Morning":
The mist still
reposes the world,
still dream of forest and meadows.
Soon, you see, when the veil falls
the blue sky, undisguisedly
herbstkräftig the subdued world
flow in warm gold.
not interest Morike. Revolution, he refused. He once said he had
"a revulsion against Heine's political twaddle.
At the age
Moerike separated from his wife. So he was unprovided for in his
last years lonely and sickly. In 1874, he died in Stuttgart. On
his deathbed he has reconciled with his wife.
Oh, what one
often by evil
Children hear or read!
As here, for example, of these,
What are called Max and Moritz;
words begins the well-known and popular story of Max and Moritz
rascals. It was written by the painter and poet Wilhelm Busch,
who became famous for this. But who was this William Bush anyway?
was born on 15 April 1832 in the Lower Town Wiedensahl. In his
9th Year he had to leave his parents' house because there is no
more room in the house. He went to his uncle, from whom he was
wanted him to study engineering, although his talent was more
in drawing and painting. With 19 years of the son sit by himself
and began to study art in Dusseldorf. Soon after, he went to Antwerp,
and finally to the art academy in Munich. Artistically, he was
influenced mainly by the Dutch painter Peter Paul Rubens, whom
he admired for "his divine ease of presentation" very
and landmark decisions
where he lived and studied in 1854, although he was not the first
professional fulfillment, but friends and key signposts for his
life. At first he doubted whether he "had ventured to right
to earn his living by painting." From 1858 he worked for
the "Flying Leaves" and "Munich broadsheet. The
publisher of this satirical publications, Caspar Braun, his friend
and supporter. A decade after the failed revolution of 1848, there
was a huge demand for publications such as open criticism was
very difficult. His publisher, socially recognized Busch's sharp
observation and next to his drawing his poetic talent. Wilhelm
Busch said after this that: "Nothing looks like it is. At
least the man, this leather bag full of tricks and whistles. And
even apart from the vagaries and masks of vanity. Whenever we
want something, you have to rely on the dubious servants of the
head and the heads and never really learns what happened. "
Picture stories with millions of copies
breakthrough as an artist came in 1865 with "Max and Moritz".
His shrewd publishers realized the chances of success of this
story in pictures immediately. He edited the picture success as
an independent book in a short time, reaching a circulation in
the millions. It was the first of a series of large picture stories
in which the prevailing morality of his time was satirically rayed.
He also wrote 1872), among other things: "The pious Helena"
( "Fipps the Monkey" (1879), "Painter Klecksel"
(1884). 1874 published a book of poems and two stories. The self-righteous
people stopped in front of bush with ironic exaggeration of a
mirror. The unmasking of the philistine and his threadbare morality
itself compelled the respect and recognition from historians.
The excellent characterization of his contemporaries also showed
that Wilhelm Busch was not a superficial man and was behind the
funny pictures stories still a good dose of sobering seriousness.
After he had
lived for many years worked in Munich and he turned the bustling
metropolis of 1898 alone, the back and moved to Mechtshausen in
the resin. Wilhelm Busch was more of a shy and thoughtful man,
who did not like the hype around his person. His fame he described
as "dizziness goods. On 9 January 1908 he died, cut off from
the outside world in his house. To this day he is with his memorable
picture stories for many generations, a notion.
Mann, "German Europe"
Heinrich Mann in 1906 (Image: Federal Photo Archive, Potsdam Str.1,
(1871-1950), who committed socially satirist and chronicler of
his time, stood for many years in the shadow of his brother-writers
Thomas Mann and was only since the 70s of the 20th Century by
the general reading public appreciated.
was born into a highly respected merchant family in Lübeck.
His father, Senator John Thomas Mann, was the public welfare of
the city much at heart, he actively supported poor, underdevelopment,
misery citizens. As the oldest son, Heinrich Mann was destined
to take over the old trading company. He received an excellent
education at the school. However, he had it on hard work and attention
is lacking, as his teacher repeatedly confirmed. To the great
disappointment of the parents, he leaves early in high school
and began teaching in 1889 as a bookseller in Dresden, however,
he breaks off after a year. He then worked as a volunteer in the
S. Fischer Verlag Berlin and denies his makeshift living in proportion
to the wealth of interest, which he inherited after the death
of his father. Here in Berlin, he produced his first literary
efforts: short stories and theater reviews. Despite his fragile
health H. Mann often changes in the years to his residence, lives
in France and Italy. After the novel "The wonderful thing"
appears in 1903 the three-part novel "The Goddess".
While still in his early works aesthetically and emotional issues
were the focus of engaging in these satirical works are increasingly
time-critical features in the foreground, so in the novel "In
the Land of Cockaigne" (1900), which is subtitled "A
novel among his people." As is important for the "polite
society they belong."
As a brilliant
satirist turns out to H. Mann in his novel "Blue Angel"
(1905). In the figure of the schoolmaster Raat - all students
just "garbage" referred to - with merciless clarity
the writer criticizes the exaggerated Autoritätsdenken at
the beginning of the 20th Century, although the school serves
only as a model. The book will be filmed 1931, after a screenplay
by Carl Zuckmayer under the title "The Blue Angel" with
Marlene Dietrich and Emil Jannings in the lead roles.
In the next
novel, "The Subject" (1916) demon of militarism, the
straight into the 1st World War I led, denounced. The novel paints
a sarcastic portrait of the German philistine with no special
talents, whose sole ambition unconditional closeness to the ruling
power and to represent and the spirit of his subjects is through
a great political risk.
In 1914, relations
between Henry and his brother Thomas Mann broke down completely.
This was caused by the affirmation of the war by Thomas Mann,
Heinrich Mann, however, the author of several essays in which
he strongly condemned the nationalist-chauvinist mood in Germany.
He sits down consistently for the reconciliation between Germany
and France on the basis of democratic structures, even in the
years of the Weimar Republic.
As one of
the first intellectuals will Heinrich Mann after Hitler seized
power and still deprived emigrated to France in 1933. In French
exile, he writes together with Andre Gide and Lion Feuchtwanger
for anti-fascist magazine. Until 1940 he lived in Nice, where
he completed his historical novel trilogy about Henry IV completed.
In 1940, he fled from occupied France through Spain and Portugal
to Los Angeles, USA. Like many intellectuals, Heinrich Mann suffers
greatly from the loss of the mother tongue and their own culture.
In 1942 he
completed his great work "An age is inspected. This work
is more than an autobiography: H. Mann sees Europe since the Enlightenment,
he writes about his love for France, his sympathy for the ideas
of the French Revolution of 1789, about the background of the
failure of the Weimar Republic in Germany and the decay of intellectual
and political life after Hitler seized power. A publication of
the late work in the United States but failed. The financial position
of the writer remains very tense. He is dependent on financial
assistance of his brother Thomas, with whom he has reconciled
himself in exile. After the suicide of his wife H. Mann frequently
suffers from depression. He died in 1950 in Santa Monica, California,
shortly before his planned return to East Berlin, where he had
the presidency of the German Academy of Arts of the GDR has been
is now considered one of the most important representatives of
socially committed literature in Germany during the Weimar Republic
and as a classical author of modernity.
von Humboldt (1756-1859), the last universal scholar
a bustle in me"
No other man
has a world map marked with his name so lastingly, it was the
Humboldt Current in South America, the mountain peak in Venezuela,
Humboldt, Humboldt Peak in Colorado. Cities, mountains, rivers,
and also many animal and plant names remind of the great naturalist.
Even Johann Wolfgang von Goethe had praised Humboldt's versatility
with the following words: "Wherever you look, he is at home
everywhere and showered us with spiritual treasures. He is like
a fountain with many tubes, where it flows against always refreshing,
estimate it as a pioneer of plant geography, a branch of science,
which he founded. Humboldt was disinterested  Supporters of
young scientists, cultural researchers, such as Manfred Osten,
former Secretary General of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation
Humboldt celebrated as the "last universal scholar of history."
In addition to the exploration of the individual object in different
areas, it was always his goal, the internal coherence to ascertain
the legality in the development of nature and relate to in "neighboring"
research subjects. Thus, we can put it today - modern-regarded
as one of the founders of the interdisciplinary research.
von Humboldt died 150 years ago in Berlin, he was almost 90 years
old. He had been suspended during the course of his life of danger
after another: the effect of electric eels in South America, he
had checked his own body. He had drunk the poison-vines "curare"
to prove that it has lethal effects only through direct blood
contact. With light leather shoes, he climbed to over 6000 meters
high Chimborazo in Ecuador, which he regarded as the highest mountain
in the world. About 600 meters before the summit, he had to turn
back, however. As the first Humboldt has described the symptoms
of altitude sickness.
A was born.
V. Humboldt, 14 September 1769 in Berlin as the son of a wealthy
aristocratic Prussian family. He was interested in, unlike his
older brother William oriented philology, early natural history.
At the Universities of Frankfurt / Oder and Göttingen he
studied natural sciences, but then went at the urging of his widowed
mother as a student of economics state to Hamburg, then to the
Bergakademie Freiberg in Saxony, to prepare for the higher civil
service. As a mining engineer, he demonstrated his social commitment:
he founded at his own expense, a "school" for the free
education of the miners, for which he developed respiratory and
1796 A. von
Humboldt went to Paris where he met the physician and botanist
Aime Bonpland. Together, they prepared their first expedition.
This led, not 1799 as planned at the South Pole, but for Venezuela.
There Humboldt learned about slavery in its worst form. Shaken
by these impressions, he wrote forceful appeals for the "humanization
of education, however, the effect of conditions in the land of
nothing. "All men are equally determined to freedom,"
Humboldt wrote in his diary. Humboldt drove up in an Indian boat
down the Orinoco and discovered an arm of water, linking the Orinoco
river system with that of the Amazon. The source of the Orinoco,
but remained unknown, but collected between "Indian tigers"
and "more mosquitoes than air" Humboldt about 6000,
including 3600 previously unknown species of plants. With his
traveling companion Bonpland, he passed over to Cuba, traveled
to Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, where he discovered the guano as
fertilizer. He traveled through Mexico to the United States, where
President Thomas Jefferson gave him an honorable reception. When
the celebrated Parisian Humboldt, on his return in 1804 as a hero,
Napoleon will be extremely jealous of the successful researchers.
In subsequent years, Humboldt evaluated the scientific results
of his expedition. There was an extensive work in 33 volumes.
Apart from botany, zoology, meteorology are also in it for the
time unique new insights into economic geography and ethnology
borne together. Leading the way were his research in the field
of meteorology: Humboldt investigated the composition of the atmosphere.
He had recognized the legitimate decrease of temperature with
increasing altitude and drew 1817, the first Isothermenkarte the
earth. Since Humboldt's financial resources were exhausted by
the extensive expeditions, he accepted the invitation of the Prussian
King Friedrich Wilhelm III. to Berlin to. He became royal chamberlain,
and casually began an extensive lecturing at academic institutions.
In 1829 Humboldt
again participate as a geologist on an expedition that took him
to Siberia, where were examined in the order of Russian Tsar Nicholas
I, the diamonds. Next he traveled to the Urals, the Altai Mountains
and to the Caspian Sea. After his return to Berlin Humboldt worked
until his death on his life's work, a "physical description
of the world," which he published under the title "Kosmos".
However, he was able to complete this work no more. Between 1845-1862
a total of five volumes were published. Only after his death,
his literary and scientific interesting correspondence with Johann
Wolfgang von Goethe, Varnhagen, and the scientists Bunsen and
Gauss, as well as with his brother, the eminent philologist Wilhelm
von Humboldt was published.
- a miracle of music
know the "Kleine Nachtmusik" and perhaps also know that
it is from Mozart. But we are also aware that this man was one
of the greatest musical geniuses? He was only 35 years old and
has created over 600 works - an incredible performance in such
a short life. And his music from a beauty like that is none other
composers. Many composers are admired - Mozart is loved worldwide.
Leopold, a renowned music teacher, was German and was born in
Augsburg in southern Germany. In Salzburg in Austria was signed
on 27 January 1756, his son, Wolfgang Amadeus was born.
Wolfgang was a musical prodigy. Loving and strict father gave
him a good musical education. At age five, he composed the first
little piano piece.
sixth year at his father took him and his sister constantly tour
through half of Europe, as far away as Paris and London. Everywhere
the young Mozart had an enthusiastic reception. The aristocratic
society, marveled at the virtuoso piano playing and the kids loved
composed the first violin sonata and his first symphony at age
12, the first opera. In Rome, the Pope, he wrote a neunstimmige
Fair could not be printed down from memory after twice listening!
found a job as concertmaster at the Salzburg court orchestra of
the archbishop. It was here, among other things, many Masses for
the service. But the archbishop treated him like a lackey.
well aware of his above-average musical ability, so he suffered
from poor treatment by the Archbishop. In 1781 he announced after
a quarrel with him his position there and went to Vienna.
Mozart was not the hoped for an honorable job, either at the court
of Emperor Joseph II, or anywhere else. Although we recognized
his ability, but he was in everything including his own musical
path. Maybe his music was for some reason to "difficult".
distrusted him because of his liberal views. He criticized easily
people and authorities, such as The Catholic Church, although
he felt connected to Christianity in a certain way. He joined
the Masonic order, having been recognized as equal here.
first Viennese were years of good years. He married Constanze
Weber, and was happy with her. His love speaks to her from the
first of his four operas "The Abduction from the Seraglio".
1786 the opera "The Marriage of Figaro" followed. The
elder Joseph Haydn was his friend and admired him. These years
were the happiest in the life of Mozart. Even financially it came
to him relatively well.
It goes downward
But then the
visitors stayed away from his concerts. Although enthusiastic
about the 1787 Prague again at his new opera "Don Giovanni".
But Mozart and his wife were both generous in spending money.
So he often had no money and had to write humiliating begging
letters to his friends.
Even now created
magnificent works. Thus, the powerful Jupiter Symphony, but it
was hardly mentioned. In Mozart's music mingled now increasingly
resigned, sad tones.
last opera "The Magic Flute", a fairy-tale opera with
Masonic idea was first performed. Mozart died a few weeks later.
His Requiem was unfinished. In an unknown grave for poor people,
he was buried - one of the greatest musical geniuses.
Life and suffering
of Georg Trakl
poet, was born on 3.2.1887 in Salzburg. His father was a distributor
of hardware and a happy, jovial man. His mother was a neurotic
disposition, and loved the art. Georg Trakl raised outwardly well
protected as the fourth of six children. From 1897 to 1905 he
attended the grammar state school. In school subjects Latin, Greek
and mathematics, his achievements were limited. So he was not
mixed twice during his school days. Then he decided to study in
the capital Vienna from 1908 pharmacy. He wanted to become a pharmacist.
with the "Academic Association for Literature and Music"
were his first works in the magazine "Der Brenner published.
The publisher supported him and recognized the great literary
talents of Georg Trakl. 1910, the year of his father's death,
he concluded his studies with difficulty a Master of Pharmacy
in 1912 and lived in the city of Innsbruck. After Trakl volunteered
volunteered for one years in the military as a drug clerk. As
a pharmacist, he worked alternately in Salzburg, Vienna and Innsbruck.
But he never stopped for long. Georg Trakl was a melancholy and
restless loner. Only his sister Margarethe (Grethe), he had a
strong connection. He could not endure life very difficult, and
plunged again into drugs and excessive alcohol consumption. Margaret
did to him, they also shared his dependence on drugs. She studied
music in Vienna and later in Berlin. George was very jealous,
and tolerated it only works with inner torment, when his little
sister was, together with other men.
In 1912, married
"Grethe" a German bookseller in Berlin. George said
this in a state of shock and unleashed his creative poetic life.
His poetic work is marked by sadness, anxiety, depression and
the search for the meaning of life. The pictorial language of
his poetry was of great strength and darker colors. Today he is
considered one of the most important exponents of Austrian Expressionism.
Trakl was able to take its most profound painful feelings into
words and give them a unique expression. He let himself in his
subjects from the ancient myths of influence, such as in his poem
"Orpheus". Even the imagery of Christianity had inspired
him. When war broke out (1914) he advanced as drugs Advisor to
Galicia (Ukraine) and is required after the bloody battle of Grodek
/ Rava-Ruska alone play for ninety seriously wounded in a barn
care. Trakl suffered a nervous breakdown and was prevented by
his comrades out to shoot himself.
An early end
had received a severe mental shock, he was eventually transferred
to the observation to Krakow. He died at the age of 27 years on
a cocaine poisoning. There now seems unsure whether this was a
suicide or an accident. Like his sister reacted to it is largely
unknown. We only know that she has aborted a pregnancy and shot
himself three years after the death of his brother himself. Their
marriage was not happy. The profound poems of Georg Trakl in his
own language is the mirror image of a decaying world, and apt
expression of a seemingly unrelated images abundance. The depth
of his work is today scarcely fathomable. The Bible says: "Nothing
is so unfathomable as the human heart. It is full of mischief,
who can understand it? (Jeremiah 17:9). "But God can!
Grimm: Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
4, 1785, Jacob Grimm was born in Hanau, his brother William on
Feb 24, 1786th As inseparable as their names are still living,
the brothers throughout their lives. After the untimely death
of the father she grew up in very modest circumstances.
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (Image: Wikipadia Commons)
The financial support of an aunt gave them studied law in Marburg.
Almost simultaneously, the brothers discovered their passion for
ancient languages and literature, which it had devoted her life.
Together they published a collection of German folk songs and
in the years 1812-1814 which have become world famous "Children's
and Household Tales" in 2 volumes, alongside 60 tales, all
forms of folk poetry as is contained in legends, jokes and horror
stories, and animal stories. After working in the Foreign Office
in 1814 as a librarian Wilhelm Grimm went to Kassel, a little
later followed him to Jacob. Even William's marriage in 1825 did
not alter the fact that the life of the two brothers continued
to run parallel. They attended both a chair at the University
of Göttingen, where shared the apartment and worked door
In 1840 the brothers of King Frederick William IV was appointed
to the Academy in Berlin. In Berlin, the brothers shared her life's
work began to establish a "German Dictionary", which
should capture the vocabulary of the German language from 400
years ago, in alphabetical order to understand and explain to
Grimm had the dictionary initially planned to 4-6 books and thought
they could handle this work in four years. Its completion, however,
lasted 100 years, because until 1961 there was a provisional conclusion.
The planned 33 volumes have been volumes 4-6. It is still the
most comprehensive and scientifically important dictionary of
the German language.
life was outwardly moving than his brother. He worked as a secretary
in public duties, but gave him his official business sufficient
time for scientific studies. So he casually worked intensively
on his "German Grammar" with whom he founded the German
Hans in Luck
Hans had served
his master for seven years, he one day said to him: "Sir,
my time is up, give me my wages, I would go home to my mother."
The Lord replied, "You are loyal and hardworking worked.
How was your work, it will be your reward. "And he gave Hans
a big piece of gold.
Hans wrapped the piece of gold in a cloth and put it on his shoulder
and was on his way home. Then he met a horseman. "Ah,"
said Hans quite loud, "what is riding so beautiful. As you
sit high up, stumble over no stones, saves the shoes and come
forward fast with no effort. "The rider reined in his horse
and shouted:" Hey Jack, why are you going to walk and yet
you have so hard to bear? " "I have to I suppose,"
answered Hans. "I carry home a lump of gold. Affects me on
the shoulder. "" You know what, "said the rider,"
we will exchange. I give you my horse, and you give me your lump
of gold. "" With all my heart, "said Hans. The
rider took the gold, helped Hans on the horse, and he rode - hopp,
hopp them -. But soon the horse was running so fast that Hans
could no longer hold in the saddle and fell into a ditch.
Then a peasant came along, and driving a cow before him. The farmer
helped Hans back on their feet, Hans thanked him and said: "The
riding is not fun, because I find your cow better running so nice
and slow. And from a cow you have you have daily milk, butter
and cheese. "
said the farmer, "if you have such great pleasure in my cow,
I will give it to you like for your horse." Hans said, so
glad. If I have a piece of bread, so now I can always eat butter
and cheese, I am thirsty, I milk my cow and drink the milk. Heart,
what do you want more, "thought Hans, and pulled away with
the cow. At noon, the sun was getting hotter, and Hans was very
thirsty. So he tied his cow to a tree and tried to milk the cow.
Since he had no pail he put under his leather cap. But however
much he tried, it came not a drop of milk. And because he was
so clumsy, gave him the cow with its hind such a blow on his head
that he fell to the ground and was almost stunned with pain.
just passed by a butcher, who transported on a cart, a young pig.
"Ah," said Hans, "who has such a pig, the` s going
really well. If you kill it, you get a lot of good juicy roast
and sausage. "" Agreed, "said the butcher. "For
your sake I want to change my pig for your cow."
on quite happy because everything went according to his wishes.
Soon he met a boy who wore a large, fine goose under his arm.
Together they made halt, and Hans told how he had always made
such good bargains. But the boy shook his head. "With your
pig is probably something not quite right," he said in a
village the mayor a pig has been stolen from the stable. I'm afraid
you've exchanged this pig. The villagers already looking for the
thief, and it would be terrible for you if they caught you with
the pig. "Given Hans very frightened. "Help me, get
the pig and give me the goose," he begged. The boy agreed,
and went away quickly. Hans was delighted and thought: is amazed
at how my mother when she sees the beautiful goose!
When he got
to the next village, there stood a scissors grinder with his barrow,
the Hans asked: "Where did you buy that fine goose?"
Hans replied: "I have not bought, but traded for a pig."
"And the pig? "" That's what I get for a cow. ""
And the cow? "" The I've got a horse. "" And
the horse? "" That I have been a huge lump of gold.
"" And the gold "" That was my reward for
working seven years. "
want to have your pockets always full of money, so you need to
buy you a grindstone and a grinder. Since I have a whetstone for
you who may be a little worn, but I also do not want more of this
than your goose. "Hans thought: Have I always money in my
pocket, I am the happiest man in the world. He gave the sander
the goose and received the grindstone.
had since early morning on his feet and had great distance behind
him, he grew tired. He sat at the edge of a fountain, to rest
and drink. The grindstone, he put his side on the edge of the
fountain. He leaned a bit to drink. Since the sharpening stone
suddenly fell into the well. Hans jumped for joy. He was so happy
that he had to haul the heavy stone anymore. "Now I'm the
happiest man in the world, free from every burden," he said
relieved. With a joyful heart, he ran on very fast, soon reached
his native village and fell into the arms of his mother.
- fighter for freedom and humanity
Today we enjoy
many freedoms. The main ones are summarized in the "human
rights". This was not always so. With the Enlightenment in
the 18th Century began, the fight for personal freedom and human
rights. The most important pioneers in Germany was to Gotthold
Ephraim Lessing (1729 to 1781).
a writer, a distinguished essayist and playwright. He fought for
tolerance and for a noble sentiment among the people. So he helped
prepare the humanism of German classicism.
and bold", a "fiery temperament" - it was judged
in its school-certificates. His classmates called him "Admirabilis",
the "admirable," because he dared to contradict also
born in a parsonage in Kamenz (Saxony). As a child he attended
no public school, but got private lessons. After graduating from
the elite school of St. Afra in Meissen (Saxony) in Leipzig, he
began to study theology. During this time there developed an interest
in literature and poetry. Since he took over the debt guarantee
for an actor, he had to leave Leipzig, and he continued his studies
in Berlin. He became a freelance writer.
he found interesting conversation partners such as Voltaire and
the wise Jewish moral philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. In the Seven
Years War, employed as a secretary in the Prussian army, he enjoyed
the free life of a soldier. During this time he wrote the comedy
"Minna von Barnhelm, as well as numerous fables in verse.
Always on the lookout for progressive-minded people, Lessing went
to Hamburg 1767 by the German National Theater was founded there.
Here he wrote the "Hamburg Dramaturgy".
for Germany a new flowering of German literature as soon afterwards
with Goethe, Schiller and others indeed arrived. As examples of
this pattern, he wrote several plays. In still plays comedy, "Minna
von Barnhelm he designed real people of his time in flesh and
blood, then something new. In Emilia Galotti, the first German
bourgeois tragedy, he criticized the tyranny of the then rulers.
Lessing published the anonymous "fragments of an unknown
writer." The clear anti-Christian tendencies in this work
were a Lessing sharp criticism from the church. He fought, among
others, the drama "Nathan the Wise". It says Lessing
by the wise person of the Jew Nathan: I want people to accept
themselves in their diversity. The value of religion consists
in their quest for truth, for active philanthropy. All religions
have the same kernel of truth: namely, the requirement to do good,
but very pale, and the belief in a creator. On everything else,
so in Christianity, for example, the redemption through Christ,
can and should be dispensed with.
His last years
from 1770 until his death in 1781, Lessing spent a very lonely
and nearly blind in the small Wolfenbüttel. There he was
a librarian at the Duke of Brunswick, and managed the world-famous
library. In his last book "The Education of Mankind",
he sees humanity on the path to ever greater perfection. Decisive
is, according to Lessing's own moral conduct of the individual.
We are grateful
for our freedom today, which Lessing, among others, has fought
for us. However, we see today are the dangers of too much freedom:
increase in drug abuse and crime, greed in the economy, divorce,
terrorism. Therefore, it is the question of whether mankind today
is truly on the road for the better.
profess: Only through Jesus, through his redemption on the cross,
I have become ever more freely and would be free from my mistakes.
We humans need God, if we should really be helped.
discoverer of the sick soul
We may be
physically healthy and not sick. For example, stomach pain or
heart problems, have or are suffering from depression, with anxiety,
addictions, compulsive behaviors. Then our soul is sick. Have
discovered the soul as a cause of disease is the merit of Sigmund
born in 1856, 150 years ago, in Freiberg, in today's Slovakia.
The land then belonged to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. His parents
were Jews. Freud felt mentally more than a German, and anti-Semitism
in Germany was strong.
a German Jew, with whom he had six children. The marriage was
good. Despite his revolutionary discoveries Freud was conservative
in his lifestyle.
a doctor in Vienna. By treating mentally ill, he found out: If
these patients could spontaneously say everything they could think
about important things, such as their parents or an important
event, then have them recognized by mental disorders. This could
then be treated and removed where possible. Even in dreams and
failures come from the unconscious thoughts, desires, conflicts
for his famous patient, the couch, so they relaxed and were able
to speak openly.
Freud discovered: Every boy has his mother as an infant in love,
fallen unconscious and sexually jealous and his father, every
girl in her father. The boy finally succeed in identifying with
his father, he is an emotionally healthy man, he must repress
his sexuality, but because of social norms or because the father
rejecting him, may affect his mental disorders. He can not fully
develop as a man with the devotion to the female sex, and can
for example be a homosexual. Among girls, the reverse is true.
this behavior the "Oedipus complex". Oedipus in Greek
mythology who killed his father and married his mother.
the sex drive as the Zentraltrieb in man. From the displacement
or the mismanagement of sexuality in childhood, in his opinion
caused by the most neuroses, emotional disturbances. For the time
this statement was a scandal.
stood next to the sex drive as opposed to the destruction or death
Freud is famous
( "psychic research") has been vigorously opposed, but
gained more and more supporters. Since 1909, Freud taught at the
University of Vienna. He eventually became world famous. His original
followers Adler and Jung parted from him later.
an atheist. He held the religion of a collective neurosis, a false-demand
presentation. It would eventually be overcome by science. The
future of humanity, he looked rather pessimistic.
In 1923 he
received the palate cancer. Many operations followed. In 1938
Austria joined the Nazis to Germany, he emigrated to London, accompanied
by his favorite daughter and colleague Anna. He died in 1939 at
his own request by a dose of morphine.
Many of Freud's
assertions prove to be exaggerated today. Thus, for example, religion
makes people sick, not neurotic. On the contrary, religious people
are on average healthier, happier and longer life than non-religious,
as shown by multiple studies. Ultimately, the human emotional
healing, inner peace found only in the sense of security in God.
But many people
in the world today, developed by Freud soul searching helps to
be internally stable, and with life.
faith in dark times
Birthday of Helmuth James Graf von Moltke (1907-1945)
hostile ideologies such as Nazism and communism in the 20th Century
in Europe is trying with all his might to put their menschenverachtendeWeltanschauung
take the place of Christian values. Courageous people have protested.
Even death could not destroy their certainty that God keeps his
people even in the darkest night, the loyalty.
One of those
men who saw in Christianity, the decisive force in the overthrow
of the national-socialist rule in Germany, was Helmuth James Graf
von Moltke was born on 11 March 1907 at Castle Kreisau in Lower
Silesia. The open, liberal thinking of the parents influenced
the younger Moltke. He studied law and political science in Breslau,
Berlin and Vienna. Besides his studies, he devoted himself to
his true passion, politics. He informed about the policies of
the parties, observed critically their practice and developed
more and more solidarity with the threatened Republic. He abhorred
Nazism and all forms of anti-Semitism. 1929 Moltke, took off his
exams and in the same year took over the administration of the
estate in Kreisau. In 1931 he married Freya Deichmann, the daughter
of a liberal Protestant bankers. His wife shared his decidedly
anti-Nazi sentiments. What he meant his wife, what moral support
they seemed to him that is evident in the unique Moltke's letters
to her. They are both a moving document of a love that had to
prove themselves under the conditions of a totalitarian regime
and a conspiratorial resistance against the political rulers.
Starting in 1934, Moltke was working as a lawyer in Berlin, while
his wife lived with the children on Good Kreisau. Moltke dealt
primarily with the advice and defense of Jewish citizens, and
got more and more targeted to the Gestapo.
annexation of Austria and the Kristallnacht on 9 November 1938
Moltke took up contact with opponents of the Nazi regime, who
were known to him from before.
1939 he was conscripted into the Office of Foreign Intelligence,
which was headed by Admiral Canaris. Through this activity Moltke
was an insight into the plans of warfare the Army Command and
learned of the crimes of the SS-Sonderkommando.
He led a dangerous political and conspiratorial double life. Together
with Peter Yorck von Wartenberg, he set up his own resistance
group. This happened regularly on Good Kreisau to develop plans
for the new political order in Germany after the fall of Hitler.
Included in this circle, which includes Protestant and Catholic
theologians and representatives of social democracy, was next
to intensively examine the role of churches in the coup. These
questions of Christian faith were discussed. All members of the
Kreisau combined experience and a common attitude: the horror
of the Nazis, for they represented the reality of evil and suffering
at the time. " Many of them, including Moltke, processed
this experience through a deliberate turning to the Christian
faith. Thus they discovered the unique truth of the Christian
message for mankind and for himself personally from scratch. Always
read Moltke in the Bible frequently and sought comfort in the
Sunday church services.
The Gestapo finally discovered the leading role in Moltke's Kreisau
Circle. On 19 January 1944 Moltke was arrested along with several
others. Prior to his execution on 23 January 1945 in Berlin Plotzensee
he writes letters to his wife, impressive evidence of resistance
against the Nazi domination of Christian belief. In the face of
likely death sentence for the policy Moltke plays hardly any role.
During the trial is before the People's Court made clear that
the confession of the accused Moltke and the Kreisau to Christianity
as the ultimate crime against the Fuhrer and the German people
will be counted. In one of his last letters Moltke wrote a few
days before his execution: "It is clear that I was not convicted
as an aristocrat, not a German, but as a Christian and as nothing
else at all ... We have fulfilled a request. The Lord has led
us to this point beautifully, he has shown us through many signs
that he is with us. From this I conclude that, if I ever ask,
will make us feel that he is with us. He can do just on the gallows
in Plotzensee as good as in freedom in Kreisau. ... To me he will
reply when I ask him: Let's meet you at my mercy. "
On 23 Moltke
was executed in January 1945 along with four resistance fighters.
The American diplomat George Kennan, the Moltke knew for many
years, wrote in retrospect: the Moltke was a moral character so
much and yet a man with such broad ideas as me in the 2nd War
on both sides of the front is no other encounters. As a political
resistance fighters, he was once a martyr of the Church of Jesus
- a master of the hymn
(1607-76) was on 12 March preceding 400 years was born in the
small town Gräfenhainichen in Saxony. His hometown is located
near the city of Lutherstadt Wittenberg. His father was mayor
and restaurateur, his maternal ancestors were priests. Paul Gerhardt
is next to Martin Luther as one of the most important German composer
of hymns. His songs are sung in the Catholic Church and in churches
of other countries. From his verses serene confidence in God speaks,
but they also tell a lot of fear and oppression during the terrible
period of the Thirty Years War.
has gone through much hardship. He had already lost both parents
at age 14. And almost half of his life during the terrible Thirty
Years' War raged in Germany (1618-48). Many towns and villages
were destroyed, and Paul Gerhardt's hometown Gräfenhainichen.
Under these painful impressions were created probably the following
and steu` re the heartache on the earth,
bring back and renew the welfare of your stove.
Let blossom as before, the country devastated, so
the churches, so the fire laid waste by war and anger.
You are a spirit that teaches that one should rather pray;
Your prayer will ear unto thy singing well klinget,
it rises to the sky, it can not be off and pressing,
bring to the assistance that can help everybody. "
Poets of trust
in God, trust
In spite of
severe personal setbacks, the poet exclaims again and again to
trust in God. His best known song is:
and what hurts your heart
the allertreusten Care
of which directs the sky.
The clouds, air and wind
there are ways to run and train,
is to find ways to
because your foot can go.
Gerhardt has been through much suffering himself, he may also
offer other wonderful consolation.
passes away, but God seeth all ohn waver;
his thoughts, his word and will have eternal reason.
His salvation and grace that does not take damage,
heal the heart of the deadly pain,
now and for ever keep us healthy. "
is full of tenderness and warmth. In his modesty he has never
released his songs himself.
wanted to become a priest. According to the study of theology,
however, he was devastated by the war in which Germany will not
pastorate. 1643 he moved to Berlin. There he became acquainted
with Johann Cruger, the leading church of the city, so to know
Paul Gerhardt's verses. Cruger was thrilled by the intellectual
depth and significance of the texts and published until 1661,
almost 100 of Gerhardt's songs, which quickly became known beyond
the borders of the city beyond. Together with his successor, Ebeling,
he has set to music the more than 120 hymns of Paul Gerhardt issued
with beautiful melodies and.
So for the
church year, the songs: "How shall I receive thee (Jesus)")
(Advent, "I stand) in your crib here" (Christmas, "O
Sacred Head, Now Wounded" (passion), "Up, up my heart
with joy "(Easter) and the song of petition to the Holy Spirit"
Take you to your gates "(Pentecost).
the age of 44 he was in the small town near Berlin Mittenwalde
a job as a pastor. Now he saw the material basis for a marriage.
Joy and thanksgiving
Paul Gerhardt's house in Wittenberg (Image: Wikimedia Commons
- Torsten Schleese)
A second theme
in addition to the reliance on God is Paul Gerhardt's songs, the
joy in God and thanking him for his many good gifts to us humans.
The first stanza of his "Summer Song" is:
my heart, and find joy
In this love summer time
to your God gifts;
look at the beautiful gardens, ornamental
and see how you and me
Gerhardt was appointed as minister to Berlin, where, however,
belonged to him a new emergency. There fought the confessions
of the Lutheran and Reformed, although both were Protestant. Then
in Brandenburg / Prussia, reigning Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm
I, this dispute was opposed vigorously.
Paul Gerhardt was a peace-loving, friendly, sensitive man. But
for the sake of his conscience, he said, in dealing with Protestants
ought not to remain silent. Thus, the Great Elector had him deposed
after 1668 as pastor.
13 years of happy marriage of Paul Gerhardt's wife died at 45
years. This was for him a deep sorrow. Of his five children died,
four very early, only one son survived.
At the end
of his life, Paul Gerhardt was still seven years pastor in the
town of Lubben. However, he has written in his last years, no
more songs. In all of the many need of his life he clung to God,
and God has never left him. But at the end of his life he had
will now drive
my life through the world.
But I think not stay at
in a strange tent.
I walk my street,
the (home to the sky) leads
da me without all the measurements
My father is comforting.
On 27 Paul
Gerhardt died in May 1676, almost seventy years old. In his songs,
he lives on until today. Paul Gerhardt's songs have spread all
over the world, they have been translated into many languages.
Countless people have drawn from it strength, consolation and
trust in God.
Wagner and the Music Drama
We are certainly
familiar with the music of Mozart and Beethoven, and they probably
also liked to hear. But Richard Wagner is probably most known
only in name.
This is because
Wagner, a daring, idiosyncratic innovators was. Not everyone takes
pleasure in his music. Nevertheless, he was a musical genius.
born in 1813 in Leipzig in Saxony. Even as a student, he was very
interested in music, poetry and theater. He wished, as many German
at that time, more freedom for the people, more democracy, as
well as the political unification of Germany.
First of Wagner
as a musician for three decades led a restless, wandering life
(eg, Konigsberg, Riga, Paris, Dresden, Weimar, London, Moscow).
His works have had to assert itself only slowly. An early marriage
in an actress was unhappy and had no children.
Wagner had to flee from his creditors, because he was not able
to pay its debts. He loved expensive furniture, exquisite fabrics
and fine fragrances, by which he was inspired to work.
1849 in Dresden,
Wagner had taken part in the uprising against the Saxon King.
Only by chance, he escaped his arrest. He had to flee and then
stay over 10 years abroad, before he was allowed to return to
his great music dramas created "The Flying Dutchman, Tannhauser,
Lohengrin, Tristan und Isolde, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg"
and "Der Ring des Nibelungen" with the parts of "Das
Rheingold, Die Walkure "Siegfried" and "Gotterdammerung."
The fabrics he usually took to the world of legend.
a change of society, eliminating all "reactionaries,"
human liberation from all bonds of the state, the Church of the
money. He then sympathized with the workers fighting for their
rights. His ideal was the "new, free man." Hence it
is in all his music dramas in some way to "salvation of mankind"
() by humans.
with its arias and their "beautiful" music of Wagner
was superficial. More and more he has his work through-composed,
therefore, "", which means he has to provide them instead
of arias and recitatives with a single continuous "endless"
melody. He declined to deliberately "beauty" and popularity
of his works.
Even the text
books for his own music Wagner wrote music and words are equal
for him. Therefore, we call his works "music dramas".
convinced that would be the artwork of the future union of music,
poetry and image in a single plant. Such a "total art"
then possessed in his opinion, moral depth.
II of Bavaria admired Wagner's music. In 1864 he saved him from
a desperate shortage of money and became his friend. Since then,
he supported financially generous Wagner. With his help, Wagner
was able to build the Bayreuth Festspielhaus for performances
of his works, and buy his house "Wahnfried".
finally prevailed and came to rest. His music was admired by many,
but also by not a few, Nietzsche, for example, sharply criticized.
had several love relationships with women. After the death of
his first wife he married the divorced by her husband, Cosima
von Bulow, daughter of Franz Liszt. It was him an ideal addition.
They had three children.
last work was still writing the "Parsifal". He died
in 1883 in Venice.
very temperamental. He loved crude jokes. He was enormously productive.
In music, he would have no side. His faith was humanism.
In his writings
he has said is true and false, also German-national and anti-Semitic.
He was a friend of the prince and also a revolutionary.
of his music went out. To the Wagner Festival, held every summer
in Bayreuth, thousands from around the world.
Mommsen - a great historian
do not always properly assess what happened. Therefore, even called
the Greek historian Thucydides: Events will be told how they have
happened, without any subjective influence. That a historian can
still be a great scientist, shows the example of Theodor Mommsen.
He was in the second half of the 19th Century, a well-known spokesman
in the Bismarck Reich.
born in 1817 in Schleswig-Holstein, the son of a Protestant minister.
Germany at that time consisted of numerous individual states (Prussia,
Saxony, Bavaria, etc.). They were each ruled by a prince and not
by a parliament. Many asked why the German revolution of 1848
- but failed - the unification of the German states into one empire
and the German government by the people in Parliament.
historian and jurist, but also politicians. He, too, his life
fighting for the unity of Germany and for a parliamentary democracy.
He belonged to the then powerful liberal movement in the German
bourgeoisie and was an opponent of the Conservatives and the nobility.
As representatives of the people he sat in the Prussian parliament
and later in the Reichstag. He demanded as much freedom for the
individual. His thoughts are now present in Germany, especially
from the FDP.
historical interest was in ancient Rome. First, he was a professor
at Leipzig. He was deposed in 1851 because of his criticism of
the government of Saxony. For two years he went abroad at the
University of Zurich. In 1861 he became professor of Roman History
in Berlin. He was also a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
His most important
works are his "Roman History" (1854-85) and "Roman
Constitutional Law" (1871-88) and "Roman Criminal Law"
(1899). Also for the inscriptions - and numismatics as well as
the legal history, he provided many new insights. He was a master
at, present and criticize.
in his assessment of the present and the past, often one-sided
and contradictory. He glorified the "liberal" Caesar
and condemned his "conservative" opponents Cicero. Similarly,
he actually hated the conservative Junker Bismarck as a representative
of a "strong" state. He opposed the protectionist and
social policy. He demanded more rights for the parliament, the
With his hatred
of Bismarck misunderstood Mommsen, the great merit, which had
this also, for example, for the national unification of Germany,
which was also Mommsen's concerns. Nevertheless, Mommsen was a
great historian. In 1902 it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature
awarded to him, "the greatest living master of the historical
present performing arts, with special consideration of his monumental
work 'Roman History'." He died in 1903.
and two great-grandchildren of the scholar, also Mommsen named,
were also important historians in the 20th Century.
The long-standing folk dance "Pope" for the southern
Kurt Wager received on 28.3.1949 from the Ministry of Culture
of Baden-Württemberg, the task of the Department of youth
development and education advice in matters of traditional dance
and support. Founder of the "folk counseling," former
name "Folk Dance outpatient Kurt Wager" in Stuttgart.
For 30 years he has provided districts with folk material in the
form of music records, dance descriptions and sound recordings,
with literature, which was constituted at that time little known
and far more difficult than it is today (2004).
Born 1911, died 1979th
(Ref: "Dancing", Journal of Counseling folk Hartmut
Wager, 4 / 1999, p.25,
and "Our mission," newsletter of the Association of
Singing, dancing and playing parties in Baden-Wuerttemberg, November
2004, p. 6)
Advice on all aspects of folk dance in Stuttgart.
Founded in 1949 led by Kurt Wager and by him until 1979. Continued
by his wife, Elli Wager until 1988, then adopted by his son, Hartmut
Wager and 1994 moved to Heroldstatt.
1999 was connected to the "German folk archive material about
23,625 dances available, and the agency was represented on the
Internet at www.tanz-vtb.de.
(Ref: dancing 4 / 1999, S.24ff, and folk dancing 4 / 1994,) p.94.
The folk dance agency and the archive was taken over on 1.1.2002
from the Swabian Cultural Albverein.
The Swabian Cultural Archives (the new name of the archive) and
the folk counseling is available on the Internet at www.schwaben-kultur.de.
Www.tanz The Internet address-vtb.de no longer exists or has been
taken over by someone else and has nothing to do with dancing.
Walter Kogler has after 2 World War ensured that the German folk
dancers were treated with good music on vinyl records.
To this end he imported LP recordings from the U.S. (eg, by Michael
Herman) and founded in 1955 as record-Verlag Walter Koegler in
Stuttgart-Moehringen, in exactly the right tempo of dance music
under the trademark "dancing" could say.
Born 29.10.1929 (Ref: "Walter Koegler is 70" in dancing
4 / 1999, p.28).
Received about the "Kurt-1989-Wager Medal for outstanding
contributions to the folk dance"
What is special about the record, which has brought out Walter
Koegler dancing in his publishing under the brand "is that
most of the PRS are free, because Walter Kogler, is an enthusiastic
folk dancer and wants to avoid the fact that his friends are charged
fees for dances must.
An exception to this is the Krüzkönig, because the music
by H. Dieckelmann still subject to copyright. At dances, therefore
caution is advised.
In his CDs can be specified for each dance, whether the music
of GEMA subject or not. Only the use of his music on radio and
television W. Koegler want to be informed.
Walter Kogler is on 16 June 2007 at the age of 77 years died.
The publishing house will continue from 1.1.2008 by Reinhold Reinhold
Publishing Frank as Frank (formerly Walter Koegler Publisher)
Böblinger Street 457, 70569 Stuttgart. The web address remains
The former folk dance "Pope" for northern Germany (
Dance researchers, bandoneon player, musician and dance director.
Held inter alia Folk dance courses in the Youth Park Hamburg-Langenhorn
with Arnold and Annelies Bökel Waszkewitz together, eg on
Born in 1926 (Ref: Dance 1 / 1996 p. 9).
Ambassador of dance, especially the German folk dance, in many
Learned, among other things with Anna Helms Blasche, son of Francis
Pulmer. Held many dance-off courses since 1964 for many years
chairman of the Denver International Folk Dance in Hamburg, engaged
and active in the working group for dance in Germany.
Today (2004) Honorary Member of the Executive Board of the German
Federal Association of Dancers
Paul and Gretel Dunsing
Well-known dance leaders from the U.S., who have taught many community
dances and Squares
Publishers of excellent folk music in New York (USA).
He brought folk dance records under the label "Folk Dancer
out", which after the 2nd World War by Walter Koegler also
came to Germany. They were performed by Michael Herman's Folk
Head of various folk dance groups.
Subject Librarian for folk dancing in the Association of Singing,
dancing and playing parties in Baden-Württemberg, director
of courses for folk dance and flag waving, several years 2 Chairman
of the "male".
Interview with Götz Zinser, probably from the year 2000
Deckenpfronn folk dance group, Dance director Gotz Zinser.
Costume Wurmlingen / Rottenburg eV, dance director Gotz Zinser.
Editor of "FOLKbrief" since 1990 or earlier, with information
from the folk scene, and references to publications, records and
CDs in this area, including "real" folk dance. Organizer
of various folk events in Germany and Austria (Hallein).
Very active folk dance group in Stuttgart, with demanding dances,
established in 1947. He formerly belonged to Kurt Wager, Walter